Working with mechanical machinery requires knowledge of not only the overall function of the equipment but the parts within it, as well. This includes every part down to the nuts and bolts of a machine. The topics focus on the skills and knowledge, presented within an industrial context, necessary to achieve the requisite competency for further specialization.
Industrial Hydraulic Fundamentals
The use of hydraulics to transmit power has reached almost every facet of the industrial world. Modern hydraulic theory is used to describe the physical behavior of all liquids. This includes that area of hydraulics in which confined liquids are used under controlled pressure to do work. This area of hydraulics, sometimes referred to as power hydraulics, is discussed in this subject area. In addition, these modules introduce the different types of components found in hydraulic systems, as well as how to prevent common failures within the systems.
Industrial Pneumatics Fundamentals
Industrial Pneumatics is designed to give maintenance personnel a complete understanding of the operation and maintenance principles involved with pneumatic systems. Subjects such as compressed air safety, component design and installation, and system cleanliness will be the primary focus of this topic. All maintenance personnel who work on compressors or are involved with the daily repair and operation of pneumatic systems are strongly encouraged to participate in these modules.
Precision Measurement Instruments
The term precision measurement is applied to the measurement field beyond the scope of line-graduated, nonprecision measuring instruments such as the ruler and scale. It refers to the art of reproducing and controlling dimensions expressed in thousandths of an inch, or millimeter. This subject area begins with an overview of the purpose of precision measurement instruments, including the difference between direct and indirect measurements, how accuracy is defined, and the categories of precision measurement tools. The subsequent modules introduce specific instruments, such as micrometers, vernier calipers, dials and indicators, and gauges.
The supply of liquid is one of the fundamental needs of any society, be it human or animal. The need to transfer water has, therefore, generated the design of a myriad of mechanical devices throughout history, which can be categorized as pumps. Millennium old designs for bucket wheels and paddle devices have not, to a significant degree, been carried forward into modern technology. With the exception of open screw pumps, all of today’s devices act to force water into the desired channels or pipes. The modules in this subject area discuss the different pump classifications and designs, as well as provide specific information about centrifugal, positive-displacement, and special-purpose pumps.
Static and Dynamic Sealing
A seal is a barrier between a fluid contained within a system and the atmosphere around that system. Packing has been used as the simplest form of seal in conditions where relative motion occurs between parts. Various types of packing material are also used to seal stationary parts such as flanges and cylinder heads. Mechanical seals, however, are replacing packing as the predominant sealing device because they are designed for zero leakage. The modules in this subject area provide participants with information on the various methods of sealing fluids into equipment.
Valves are used throughout industry to direct, control, or regulate the flow of fluids by opening or closing passageways totally or partially. When a valve is open, fluid flows in the direction from higher pressure to lower pressure. This subject area introduces the operation of typical industrial valves and provides an overview of actuators, relief valves, and safety valves.
Pipes and Pipefitting
Technology in the industrial marketplace has taken remarkable strides in the last one hundred years. The technological breakthroughs have required piping systems to be capable of handling much higher temperatures and pressures. These conditions have made it necessary for industry to generate economical, safe, and efficient plant and piping systems. The modules in this subject area begin by presenting the industry standards that regulate pipefitting specifications. After this, participants learn about the different types of pipe materials, manufacturing methods, insulating materials, and supports in a piping system.
Lubrication reduces friction between moving parts by substituting solid friction with fluid friction. By reducing friction, and thereby reducing the amount of energy that is dissipated as heat, lubrication reduces the amount of energy required to perform mechanical actions. This subject area introduces the different types of friction and their relation to lubrication requirements of machinery. In addition, these modules provide an overview of the selection of proper lubricant for operating machinery as well as how to determine the cause of component failure.
Rotating mechanical equipment in industry today is faster, more efficient, and carries greater loads than the machinery of 20 years ago. Component parts of today’s machines are designed and built to minimize the necessity of frequent replacement and repairs. Bearings, by the nature of the service they perform in a rotating device, are expendable and only have a finite life span. The modules presented in this subject area provide a thorough understanding of the operation, maintenance, and installation of different bearing types.
Mechanical Transmission Systems
Mechanical transmission systems vary widely in design however they serve the same basic purpose, to connect a machine’s power source to its driven component. The speed and direction of rotation of a machine can be controlled through the use of gear boxes, chain drives, clutches, and belt drives. Maintenance personnel should be familiar with each type of transmission system and how to properly inspect, maintain, and repair them. These modules will provide valuable information on the theory of operation of each type of transmission system and where they are used in industry. From transmission through the meshing of gear teeth to the frictional belt drive, mechanical transmissions are key to long and efficient equipment life.
Any time large, heavy, or awkward items need to be moved within a plant, rigging is required. The fundamentals of rigging revolve around one main theme: safety. Whenever a rigging job is to be performed, safety must be the principle concern. Time and expense are secondary to safety. To provide for the necessary level of safety and to ensure a timely operation, a rig must be approached through certain fundamental elements. The modules in this subject area provide an overview of planning a rigging job, selecting rigging equipment, rigging techniques, and the proper use of signals.
Alignment is basic to all rotating mechanical equipment because of the need to connect driven equipment with driving equipment. The proper alignment of coupled equipment greatly improves its operating life and decreases the cost of maintenance. Learning how to perform an accurate alignment, therefore, is an essential skill of all maintenance personnel. The topics in this module provide participants with an in-depth overview of the shaft alignment process, starting with a discussion of the types and indications of misalignment and continuing through the different alignment methods and procedures.
Welding is not new. The earliest known form of welding, called forge welding, dates back to the year 2,000 BC. Forge welding is a primitive process of joining metals by heating and hammering until the metals are fused, or mixed, together. Although forge welding still exists, it is mainly limited to the blacksmith trade. Today, there are many welding processes available in industry. The modules in this topic introduce participants to these processes as well as the preparation, quality requirements, and testing involved with them.
Heat exchangers are vital to everyday life and can be found in a variety of places. Wherever heat must be added or removed to a space, object, or process, some type of heat exchanger is employed. The hot water tank in your house contains an internal heat exchanger that transfers heat energy from an outside source to the water within the tank.